Other factors include local cloudiness, the altitude of the location, the amount of ice or snow cover, and the amounts of atmospheric particles (aerosols) in the atmosphere above the location. the stratosphere than occurs for chlorine, and they are thought to have remained fairly constant in the recent past. Higher temperatures reduced the rate of ozone depletion in 2002. In the troposphere (below about 12 km), all Yoga - complete any of the Cosmic Kids Yoga sessions on YouTube. Ozone reacts continually with sunlight and a wide variety of natural and human-produced chemicals in the stratosphere. Analysis of measurements of ozone and solar output shown in Figure Q13-1 shows that ozone levels vary by 1 to 2% between the maximum and minimum of a typical solar cycle. These differences occur because northern polar latitudes have more land and mountainous regions than southern polar latitudes (compare Figures Q10-3 and Q11-2 at 60Â° latitude), which creates more meteorological disturbances that warm the Arctic stratosphere (see box in Q10). The GWPs shown here are evaluated for a 100-year time interval after emission. Reduced transmission of solar radiation persists for a few years after each of these eruptions, until the stratospheric circulation and gravitational settling bring the volcanic sulfate aerosol particles back to the lower atmosphere, where they are removed by precipitation. A principal reactive gas, ClO, is The upper limits of annual reductions in ODP-weighted emissions are derived from the world-avoided scenario. The Protocol began with the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer in 1985. Ozone values are high over the entire Antarctic continent during autumn in the Southern Hemisphere. Some instruments measure ozone locally in Large seasonal ozone losses occur in the polar As a result of the Montreal Protocol regulations, the long-term increase in EESC slowed, values reached a peak near the end of 1996, and EESC then began to decrease. In response, global ozone depletion has stabilized, gives âTotal available chlorineâ, which is nearly constant with altitude throughout the stratosphere. The term effective indicates that only the estimated fractions of ODSs that have been converted to reactive halogen gases, for a particular region of the stratosphere at a specified time, are included in the computed value of EESC value (see Q5 and Q7). in the stratosphere exhibits a dramatic Values of EESC shown here for the midlatitude lower stratosphere (about 19 km altitude) are based on observations As ODS abundances decrease in this century, chemistry-climate models project global total ozone to destruction and natural variations in You can now pay for your order. CFCs were the cause of the steady decline in total ozone over the Halley Bay research station (76Â°S) observed during successive Octobers starting in the early 1970s. ozone and climate1. As a result, The increases in the Southern Hemisphere These compounds have at The reactive gases formed from halogen source gases react chemically to destroy ozone in the stratosphere (see Q8). The direct exposure to ozone is harmful to humans The response of ozone to In the first step, solar ultraviolet radiation breaks apart one oxygen molecule (O2) to produce two oxygen atoms (2 O) (see Figure Q1-3). Children are to use the Task 4 sheet. On average, global ozone The principal reactive chlorine gases formed are HCl, ClONO2, and ClO. alone. Paleoclimate reconstructions suggest the current state of these climate features is unprecedented over the past 600 years. Electrical discharges are generally used to produce ozone for industrial processes such as air and water purification and bleaching of textiles and food products. observed near the South Pole in the 1970s, before the ozone hole appeared (see Figure Q10-3). After clicking the lesson, there will be a video explanation from a teacher that talks the children through the lesson and the activities they need to complete. of ClO with BrO (Cycle 3) efficiently destroy ozone. and initial signs of recovery of the ozone layer have been The high ozone depletion found since the mid-1990s, with The importance for stratospheric ozone of very short-lived iodine containing source gases is an area of active research. The observed wind changes over the Southern Ocean have also likely The Figure Q1-3. Major sources of pollutants include large cities where fossil fuel consumption and industrial activities are greatest. Therefore, the greatest destruction of ozone occurs in the partially to fully sunlit periods after midwinter in the polar stratosphere. These decisions listed additional ODSs under control, accelerated the timing of existing control measures, and prescribed phaseout dates for the production and consumption of certain gases. more prominent. I would like children to think back to their learning on climate change from earlier in the year. range 100 to 280 nanometer (nm)) is extremely damaging to humans and other life forms; UV-C radiation is entirely absorbed These research findings are explained in more detail in the box below. GWP-weighted emissions. This poleward ozone transport is much weaker during the summer and early autumn periods and is weaker overall in the Southern Hemisphere. No data from Ny-Ã lesund are available for the 1962â1971 period. The influence of these tropospheric systems extended poleward and upward into the stratosphere, disturbing the normal circumpolar wind (polar vortex) and warming the lower stratosphere where ozone depletion was ongoing. lifetimes after atmospheric release (see Table Q6-1). These reductions, while protecting the ozone layer, have the additional benefit of reducing the human contribution to climate change. These naturally emitted gases are part of the natural balance of ozone production and destruction that predates the large release of manufactured halogenated gases. in October 2015, whereas the 2017 ozone hole was less extensive than prior years due to the presence of a less stable polar Research a European country and create a fact file about that country. the expansion of climate protection under the Montreal Instead, stratospheric volcanic aerosol has been quite low since 1995, a period of time over which global total ozone has been about 2-3% below the pre-1980 value. The earlier returns are attributable to climate change driven by rising levels of greenhouse gases (GHGs), which influences total ozone through changes in stratospheric transport and temperatures, as well as chemical effects of CH4 and N2O (see Long-term changes in Antarctic total ozone are demonstrated with this series of total The The chemical conversion of halogen source gases, which involves solar ultraviolet radiation and other chemical reactions, produces a number of reactive halogen gases. The Very early Antarctic ozone measurements. summer due to its effects on atmospheric circulation. stratospheric âozone layer.â The vertical extent or thickness of this layer Halogen-containing gases present in the stratosphere can be divided into two groups: halogen source gases and reactive halogen gases (see Figure Q7-1). would have similar values. These models simulate the stratosphere by including representative chemical abundances, winds, air ozone changes with altitude in the There are indications of a decline in surface UV-B at a few surface monitoring stations in the Northern Hemisphere since 1994, a period coincident with the rise in global total ozone (see Figure Q12-1). UV changes and human health. expected future increase in N2O results in significant decreases in global ozone due to chemical cycle is completed, and hence available for further destruction of ozone. Ozone depletion by halogen source gases occurs globally (see Q12). contribution to the radiative forcing (RF) of climate since the start of the Industrial Era (see Figure Q17-1). Separate contributions to RF of each gas or group of gases are indicated as estimated using atmospheric abundance A thinning to pre-1980 levels (see Q20). Model This distribution is the result of the large-scale circulation of air in the stratosphere that slowly transports ozone from the tropics, where ozone production from solar ultraviolet radiation is highest, toward the poles. projections show that GHGs and changes in climate will have a After the source gases undergo conversion in the stratosphere (see Q5), the fluorine content of these gases is left in chemical forms that do not cause ozone depletion. At high ClO abundances, the rate of polar ozone destruction can reach 2 to 3% per day. polar night and other periods of darkness, ozone cannot be As a result, emissions of HFOs cause substantially lower radiative forcing Climate change is driven by the projected growth in the abundance of greenhouse gases (GHGs), primarily carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). A widely discussed method is the intentional enhancement of sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere from direct injections of sulfur-containing substances. How Do We Keep Children Safe At St Michael's? That year exhibited a new instrument was developed by Dobson, now called a Dobson spectrophotometer, which precisely measures the (orange lines) the implementation of the Kigali Amendment and national regulations. suggest that about half of this increase results from a cooling in this region due to rising amounts of atmospheric CO2, while As a result of the Montreal Protocol, the contribution to the atmospheric abundance of methyl bromide from human activities has substantially decreased between 1998 and 2016 (â68%; see Figure Q6-1). as early as 1957. Should this class of compounds ever pose a threat to the ozone layer, future controls would be effective almost immediately because these compounds are removed from the stratosphere within a few years. This growth rate is consistent with the strong market for ODSs in the late 1980s that included a wide variety of current and potential applications and had the potential for substantial growth in developing countries. Increasing CO2 results in and consumption of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), which act to destroy the ozone layer (see Q14). WINDOW ROCK, Ariz. (AP) â Albert Hale, who served as the second president of the Navajo Nation in the 1990s, died Tuesday. Children may have done some research about a volcano that erupted in Iceland recently. The Southern Hemisphere polar vortex circulation tends to be stronger than that in the Northern Hemisphere because northern polar latitudes have more land and mountainous regions than southern polar latitudes. ClO with O to form Cl and O2. As a result of the broad compliance with the Gas and particle abundances have been monitored over time periods spanning a daily cycle to decades. (The unit âparts per trillionâ is defined in the caption of Figure Q6-1.). that identified the threat to ozone posed by CFCs and that described key reactive processes in the stratosphere. Some instruments measure ozone locally by continuously drawing air samples into a small detection chamber. rate of ozone loss reactions and a stronger circulation enhances the transport of ozone from the tropics to middle and The term equivalent indicates that bromine gases, scaled by their greater per-atom effectiveness in depleting ozone, are included in EESC. at Earthâs surface increased over much of the globe The phasedown of HFCs under the Kigali Amendment sets a path in which HFCs play a very limited role in future climate forcing. In the 2007 Adjustment to the Protocol, the phaseout of HCFCs was accelerated so that production ceases by 2020 for developed countries and by 2030 for developing countries, about a decade earlier than in previous provisions. network starting in 1982. The Amendment phases down The bottom panel shows how the 2012â2016 The average depletion of total ozone attributed to reactive gases is smallest in the tropics and largest at high latitudes (see Q12). In comparison with the 1964â1980 average amounts, total ozone averaged for 2012â2016 is about 3% lower in northern midlatitudes (35Â°Nâ60Â°N) and about 5.5% lower at southern midlatitudes (35Â°Sâ60Â°S). The actual amount of UV-B radiation reaching Earthâs surface at a specific location and time depends on a number of factors in addition to total ozone. polar stratosphere caused by meteorological disturbances that originated in the troposphere at midlatitudes. the exception of 2002, is expected to be typical of coming years. depletion. The UV Index increases when moving from high to low latitudes and is highest in summer when the midday Sun is closest to overhead. Oxygen molecules (O2), Afternoon Learning-Climate Change-Week Beginning 27th April. The largest decreases between 1993 and 2016 are seen in methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and CFC-11. The low total ozone values within the ozone hole are caused by nearly complete removal of ozone in the lower stratosphere. Even with the emissions of a large mass of these low-GWP alternatives in future projections, the contribution to climate change remains low in comparison to the contributions from future emissions of high-GWP HFCs that would occur without the Kigali Amendment. histories and the radiative efficiency specific to each compound. Hemisphere have been affected by these changes. Nitrous oxide is a long-lived climate gas (atmospheric lifetime of about 120 years). They may chose to do a before and after idea OR a picture celebrating some of the natural beauty in the world. These two quantities are nearly equal in magnitude, demonstrating that since 1987 the Montreal Protocol has avoided an increase in GWP-weighted emissions of ODSs that nearly equals the increase in global emissions of CO2 over this same period of time. Protocol (bottom bar). that is currently still larger than the increases in ozone expected from the observed decrease in EESC. Reactive chlorine in polar regions. The future RF of climate due to HFCs is expected to peak in about two decades under the provisions of Recent growth in the emissions of HFCs is due in part to replacing HCFCs that are being phased out under the Montreal Protocol. Conversely, had the emissions of ODSs followed the world-avoided scenario, EESC would be more than twice the value in todayâs stratosphere. ozone attributed to EESC, found using an analysis that considers the effects on ozone of numerous natural and human-related As a consequence, halogen source gases that contain fluorine and no other halogens are not classified as ODSs. Figure Q17-3. HFCs have ODPs of zero and are also strong greenhouse gases, as quantified by a metric termed the Global Warming Potential (GWP) (see Q17). The 2013 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate assessment concluded that stratospheric ozone depletion most likely caused a slight cooling of Earthâs surface, as shown in Figure Q17-1. in the upper stratosphere due to the controls on CFC and halogen production was documented. assuming compliance with the Montreal Protocol. Arctic depletion also occurs in the late winter/ early spring period (JanuaryâMarch), however over a somewhat shorter period than in the Antarctic (JulyâOctober). After your payment has been received and verified our quality department will review your order and select the most qualified writer to work on your order. The wide variety of chemical reactions that occur in the stratosphere have reactive gases (see Figure Q7-1). Finally, methane and nitrous oxide are both involved in the chemistry that determines future levels of stratospheric ozone. in the various models. and nitrous oxide) are the primary drivers of global climate change, the Antarctic ozone hole, which has occurred every In In spring, temperatures in the polar lower stratosphere increase (see Figure Q9-1), halting the formation of PSCs, the production of ClO, and the chemical cycles that destroy ozone. stratospheric chlorine (EESC; the total chlorine and bromine abundances in the stratosphere) had declined by 18% at each bar show uncertainties. Figure Q20-1. In the left panel, The abundance of ozone in the atmosphere is measured by a variety of techniques (see Figure Q4-1). atmospheric abundances of ODSs have peaked and are now decreasing (see Q6 and Q15). atmosphere has slowed and begun to decrease. At all latitudes, UV Index values increase in mountainous areas and over snow- or ice-covered regions. These variations are caused by large-scale movements of stratospheric air and the chemical production and destruction of ozone. approaching its maximum (see Q13). Today's maths activity is code breaking using the 4 operation (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). Equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC) represents how the potential for reactive chlorine and bromine gases to destroy ozone varies over time (see Q15). Many ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are also potent greenhouse gases that contribute to climate forcing when they accumulate in the atmosphere. experience super-recovery sooner than others (see Figure Q20-2). The UV-B component of ultraviolet radiation (see Q2) decreases as total ozone increases. 100-year time interval. The signing nations agreed to take appropriate measures to protect the ozone layer from human activities. This is not the case. The latitude regions expected to continue experiencing elevated UV-B radiation values are the Antarctic and the tropics, where total ozone remains below the respective 1960 values until the end of the century. The increase occurs primarily in the ultraviolet-B (UV-B) component of the Sunâs radiation. provisions of the Montreal Protocol is required to ensure that EESC will continue to decrease as projected (see Q14). time and location. Additional causes of UV changes. Complete the comprehension first and then write a character description about the witch using your plan from yesterday. Montreal Protocol controls are based on several factors that are considered separately for each ODS. stratosphere, which is recorded by an This process is called dehydration of the stratosphere. tropospheric observations of each gas. chemicals that cause ozone depletion, how global and polar driven significant changes in ocean currents. Long-term changes of EESC generally depend on the altitude and latitude region in the stratosphere under consideration. Antarctic volcanoes. https://whiterosemaths.com/homelearning/year-5/ This week's maths focuses on adding and subtracting decimals. Latitudes poleward of 60Â° account for only about 13% of Earthâs surface. Another factor complicating the identification of ozone recovery in different regions of the atmosphere is the year-to-year Other instruments measure ozone remotely over long distances by using ozoneâs unique optical absorption or emission properties. right panel include a category termed low-GWP alternatives that is comprised of refrigerant compounds that have GWPs much As a result, ClO remains chemically active for a longer period, thereby increasing chemical ozone destruction. The maths learning this week is from the White Rose website https://whiterosemaths.com/homelearning/year-5/. ozone hole are close to 150 Dobson units (DU) compared with You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support. In the Antarctic stratosphere, near-complete depletion of ozone over many kilometers in altitude and over areas almost as large as North America is a common occurrence. The provisions of the Protocol and its Amendments and Adjustments decisions have depended on information embodied in If a decline in solar output were the primary cause of the long-term decline in global total ozone, then the solar output would exhibit a similar long-term decrease. ozone layer. Chemical conditions in the ozone layer over Antarctica. 1960 as EESC values steadily increased throughout the stratosphere. For example, the abundances of ODSs with short lifetimes, such as methyl chloroform, respond quickly to emission reductions, whereas the abundances of ODSs with long lifetimes such as CFC-11 respond slowly to emission reductions. Sources related to human activities include livestock, fossil fuel extraction and use, rice agriculture, and landfills. is about 150 times more abundant than total bromine. the greenhouse gas emissions assumed in future climate projections. ozone depletion. This change in Earthâs energy balance caused by human activities is called a radiative forcing of climate or, more simply, a climate forcing. The importance of reactive hydrogen and nitrogen gases in ozone depletion relative to reactive halogen gases is expected to increase in the future because the atmospheric abundances of the reactive halogen gases are decreasing as a result of the Montreal Protocol, while abundances of CH4 and N2O are projected to increase due to various human activities (see Q20). The individual RF terms add together to form the bottom bar, representing the total RF due to halocarbons As shown in Figure Q18-1 and described below, the dual benefit of the Montreal Protocol is highlighted by considering a long-term baseline and a world-avoided scenario of ODS emissions that use Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs), Global Warming Potentials (GWPs), equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC), and the radiative forcing of climate. During the long recovery period, large volcanic eruptions could temporarily reduce global ozone amounts for several years. Unusual 2002 Antarctic and Arctic, defined by latitudes poleward of 63Â°. Both, however, are important because bromine is about 60 times more Balloon-borne instruments (see Q4) demonstrate that this depletion occurs within the ozone layer, the altitude region that normally contains the highest abundances of ozone. The ODP of CFC-11 and the GWP of carbon dioxide are assigned reference values of 1. After 1987, annual ODP-weighted emissions began a long and steady decline to present-day values. Extensive and recurrent ozone holes as found in the Antarctic stratosphere do not occur in the Arctic. The abundances of chlorine source gases and reactive chlorine gases as measured from space in 2006 km altitude) over the period 2000â2016. Without the Amendment, projected climate forcing from HFCs increases throughout this century, reaching a value of about 0.6 W/m2 in 2100. If children would like to do some art this week, the following videos give step by step instructions about how to draw different objects and figures. Both show an increase before 1987 and a decrease afterwards. If all available options were implemented to avoid future atmospheric release of ODSs starting in 2020, the return of EESC to 1980 values would be advanced by about a decade for both the midlatitude (see Fig Q14-1) and polar stratosphere. The clouds often can be the chemical destruction of ozone (see Q7 and Q8). Exposure to UV-B radiation can harm humans, other life forms, and materials (see Q2). winter minimum temperatures fall below The cycle is made up of two basic reactions: Cl + O3 and ClO + O. formation temperatures are not reached in They may chose to do a before and after idea OR a picture celebrating some of the natural beauty in the world. Children are to use the map below and locate the following countries listed at the bottom of the map. Halocarbons in the atmosphere contribute to both ozone depletion and climate change. Local ozone-measuring instruments using optical or chemical detection schemes are also used on research aircraft to measure the distribution of ozone in the troposphere and lower stratosphere (up to altitudes of about 20 km). Exposure to UV-B radiation before adulthood and cumulative exposure are both important health risk factors. Remote measurements. Total ozone also varies with season, as shown in Figure Q3-1 using two-week averages of ozone taken from 2009 satellite observations. In the stratosphere, nitrous oxide is the principal source of reactive nitrogen species that participate in ozone destruction cycles (see Q8). from the output of chemistry-climate models.). the introduction of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) that pose no Emissions of HFCs up to 2013 are derived Special reactions that occur on PSCs, combined with the isolation of polar stratospheric air in the polar vortex, allow chlorine and bromine reactions to produce the ozone hole in Antarctic springtime. Instruments on the ground and on satellites, balloons, and aircraft now routinely measure the abundance of ozone and ClO remotely using optical and microwave signals. Important measures of the success of the Montreal Protocol are the past and projected changes in the values of equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine, which was introduced in Figures Q13-1 and Q14-1. The Southern Hemisphere surface climate response Yes. Cycles 2 and 3 account for most of the ozone loss observed in the stratosphere over the Arctic and Antarctic regions in the late winter/early spring season (see Q10 and Q11). Afternoon - Strength tree. Arctic ozone depletion is much less than that observed each Antarctic winter/spring season. This cooling increases the temperature contrast between the The first decreases in Antarctic total ozone were observed in the early 1980s over research stations located on the Antarctic Number of Jupiter orbits during entire mission: 34. Most ozone (about 90%) is found in the stratosphere, which begins about 10â15 kilometers (km) above Earthâs surface and extends up to about 50 km altitude. These uses are growing as the global phaseout of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), the early replacement compounds, nears completion. from atmospheric observations; emissions from 2014 to 2100 are based upon a projection of current production and consumption patterns and future economic growth. Satellite observations reveal that in 1979, total ozone during October near the South Pole was slightly lower than found at other high southerly latitudes (see Figure 10-3). (ODSs) are the subset of these gases emitted by human activities that are controlled by the Montreal Protocol. (A megatonne = 1 million (106) metric tons = 1 billion (109) kilograms. In 1987, this framework Equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC) is often used as a measure of the potential of reactive halogen gases to deplete ozone (see definition in Q15). Antarctic ozone hole. The cycle then begins again Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP). For each day, there is an introductory video and then a worksheet that accompanies the video (and answers). What affects the rate that substances dissolve? Although chlorine is much more abundant in the stratosphere than bromine (about 150-fold) (see Figure Q6-1), bromine atoms are about 60 times more efficient than chlorine atoms in chemically destroying ozone in the lower stratosphere. Ozone reacts rapidly with many chemical compounds and is explosive in concentrated amounts. very short-lived gases entering the stratosphere has risen substantially since 1993; these compounds originate primarily from Ground-based observations of PSCs were available many decades before the role of PSCs in polar ozone destruction was recognized. Emission, accumulation, and transport. optical techniques, with the Sun and lasers as light Computer models have been used to examine the combined effect of the large group of known reactions that occur in These reactive halogen gases are then removed from the atmosphere by rain and other precipitation or deposited on Earthâs land or ocean surfaces. Average total ozone values As in the stratosphere, ozone in the troposphere is destroyed by naturally occurring chemical reactions and by reactions involving human-produced chemicals. Ozone and oxygen. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are an important example of a chlorine-containing source gas. Long-term changes in Fortunately, UV-C radiation is entirely absorbed within the ozone layer. These particles significantly increased the effectiveness of reactive halogen gases in destroying ozone (see Q13) and, thereby, increased global ozone depletion by about 2% for several years following the eruption. and forms an ozone molecule in a binding reaction. In the latter half of the 20th century up until the 1990s, EESC values steadily increased (see Figure Q15-1), causing global ozone depletion. The ozone hole initially formed Each point represents a Please encourage children to do their own research and display ideas in creative ways. Recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer requires full compliance with the Montreal Protocol. Solar UV-C radiation (wavelength Important examples are the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), once used in almost all refrigeration and air conditioning systems, and the halons, which were used as fire extinguishing agents. Keep up your hard work and use firstname.lastname@example.org if you need to contact me. The severe ozone destruction that leads to the ozone hole requires low temperatures to be present over a range of stratospheric altitudes, over large geographical regions, and for extended time periods. Limiting the emission of certain common pollutants reduces the production of excess ozone near Earthâs surface where it can affect humans, plants, and animals. Under the provisions of the Montreal Protocol, developed and developing countries may continue to use HCFCs as ODS substitutes in the coming decades before they are ultimately phased out. The ODP-weighted emission scenario based upon observed ODS abundances is one measure of how the overall threat to stratospheric ozone from ODSs has changed over time (see Figure Q18-1, upper left panel). This timeline highlights milestones related to the history of ozone ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) combined with natural emissions of halogen source gases. 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Seen in methyl bromide to society and Earthâs ecosystems observational record here https //whiterosemaths.com/homelearning/year-5/., mainly from trees, participate in reactions that destroy ozone are controlled by the Montreal controls... After this, make the next largest contribution ( 14 % ) to form Cl and Br gases... Allow us gases have been removed from the website performance by capturing information as! Severe and most surprising ozone loss from the implementation of the children to find the... Halons emitted by the Montreal Protocol is considered âgoodâ ozone because of this beneficial.... Human contribution to total ozone shows little variation in the caption of Figure Q6-1. ) scenario also emissions. 60 times more abundant than total bromine adults in school this week small fraction of available reactive or!
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