klingender content and form in art

The Materiality of Exhibition Photography in the Modernist Era: Form, Content, Consequence. For in art the particular becomes the general, the general reveals itself in the particular, and it is the unity of the particular and the general, expressed in the unity of content and form, which makes art an inexhaustible source of significant experience. André Breton: from the First Manifesto of Surrealism 1924. ‘The most universal of all things cherished by men and the one cherished more than anything else in the world is life itself; most of all the life men would like to live but also every other kind of life, for it is in any case better to live than not to live and all live things by their very nature are afraid of death, of extinction – and they all love life. Stripped of its illusions, the ideal beauty depicted by art loses its power to console men for the imperfections of reality. I know that I have no right to detach myself so completely from the fate of my kind, but I have never been able to believe in political values.’ [11] In the light of this confession it is not difficult to understand the curious phrase which Fry used in a letter to D. S. MacColl (1912) to define his own aim as a practising artist: ‘I’ve always been searching for a style to express my petite sensation in.’ [12] Estranged from life and indifferent to the fate of mankind, art, as here defined, has no other function but to cultivate the sensibility of the few elect. Satta Hashem, email to Suheyla Takesh, November 25, 2017. Such works will be, as it were, composed on themes set by life.’. … ‘The beautiful’, says Chernyshevski, ‘is an individual, live object and not an abstract thought’. And it also means that the aesthetic value of a work of art must in some way be related to the effect it produces, not merely in its own time, but as long as it survives. Louis Aragon: from Paris Peasant 1924. 1935. Francis Klingender: 'Content and Form in Art' 1935. It follows that art, too, far from being superior to reality, can only be a pale reflection of it: ‘All that finds expression in science and art can be found in life in a more perfect and complete form, with all those vital details in which the true meaning of the matter usually lies and which are often not understood and even more often disregarded by science and art. 21 24 25 Introduction First writing assignment – what is art? … Hence his attempt, after say 1912, to disentangle the ‘purely aesthetic’ elements from their accompanying ‘accessories’ was in fact an attempt to explain the indifference of certain artists to the problems of life and the growing isolation of art from all other spheres of existence. Art is thus a striking and at the same time a peculiarly revealing illustration of the key conception of dialectics, the unity of opposites. Revolving Blades and Wheels from Olavs Magnus, History of the Northern Peoples, 1555 1 . 11. I also admit that under certain conditions the rhythms of life and of art may coincide with great effect on both; but in the main the two rhythms are distinct, and as often as not play against each other. It would be false and unconvincing precisely because of its character as a lifeless abstraction. Leon Trotsky: from Literature and Revolution 1922-23. The statement that it is the function of art to reproduce everything that interests man in life implies that the particular image created must be ‘of interest to man generally and not merely to the artist’. Marxism and Modern Art: An approach to social realism by F. D. Klingender 1943. listeners cannot directly identify. Realism as Critique. Francis Klingender: ‘Content and Form in Art' 1935. Line can control an viewer's eye. The impact of the Industrial Revolution on modern economic, social, and political life is unquestionably profound. Animals in Art and Thought to the End a/the Middle Ages: the wily stratagems of the fox, part hero, part villain, appealed to all classes of society. Francis Klingender: 'Content and Form in Art' 1935. 35. André Breton: from the First Manifesto of Surrealism 1924. But in reproducing life, the artist also, consciously or unconsciously, expresses his opinion of it, and it is by virtue of this that ‘art becomes a moral activity of man.’. Unlike mathematics which interprets reality by reducing its multiplicity to abstract laws, art reproduces reality by means of images. Now this responsive action implies in actual life moral responsibility. In other words, it refers to the form and not to the content of the artist’s work. Within the oldest art forms can be seen It is scarcely necessary to point out that this profound idea is utterly incompatible with the formalism of Roger Fry. Structures and circuits begin to appear, surfacing a place for gathering and conjuring. Science does not claim to be anything else, nor do the poets in their cursory remarks about the essence of their work. It is by now a commonplace that individual and … London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1975); and Francis D. Klingender, “Content and Form in Art,” in Art in Theory, 1900-2000, ed. 11. Adolf Hitler: Speech Inaugurating the 'Great Exhibition of German Art' 1937. READ: Edouard Glissant “The Black Beach”; Diego Rivera "The Revolutionary Spirit"(421-424); Maya Lin "Untitled Statements" (524-5); Arthur Danto "The Abuse of Beauty" ; Clifford Geertz "Art … Realism as Critique: Leon Trotsky: from Literature and Revolution 1922-23. Angelo Lo Conte. In Art and Form Rose engages mainly with fellow authors in Nonsite, notably Todd Cronan and Patrick McCreless, noting intentionalist assumptions malgré eux, but his thesis is more strongly indebted to Michael Baxandall, Patterns of Intention: On the Historical Explanation of Pictures (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1985). Klingender's father, Louis Henry Weston Klingender (1861-1950), a native of Liverpool, was a painter of animals, a subject which the younger Klingender would return to himself late in life. Tennyson became the Laureate of the Victorians because, on the surface at least, he spurned the blandishments of art for art’s sake and accepted the ‘mission’ of teaching and consoling his fellow men. the tame still-lives and the harmless holiday scenes of the post-impressionists (not, it is significant to note, what was really new in English art, the war paintings of 1914-18). Genre/Form: History: Additional Physical Format: Online version: Klingender, F.D. To quote his own words: ‘Art, then, is an expression and a stimulus of the imaginative life, which is separated from actual life by the absence of responsive action. Francis Klingender: ‘Content and Form in Art' 1935. His mother, also British, was Florence Hoette (Klingender) (d. 1944). 36. THE ART OF THE WANJINA. The minds of such people are not very active and if a person of this type happens to be a poet or an artist, his work will have no significance beyond reproducing the particular aspects of life which he prefers. Wood This popular anthology of twentieth-century art theoretical texts has now been expanded to take account of new research, and to include significant contributions to art theory from the 1990s. Thus, according to Chernyshevski, the significance of a work of art is proportional to the comprehensiveness and truthfulness with which it faces and attempts to solve the problems set by life. But from about 1870 onwards, as the pressure increased, this critical attitude was more and more replaced by assumed indifference, the artist retreated into ever remoter realms of ‘purely’ aesthetic experience, and the further he retreated, the more rapidly did the sweets he coveted turn to ashes in his mouth. ‘Everything that interests man in life’ includes the ugly, as well as the beautiful, the forces that frustrate and crush life, as well as those that support it, death as well as life. Realism as Critique. Chernyshevski admits that beauty in this sense of perfection of form, or in the language of classical philosophy, of the ‘unity of idea and image’, is an essential element of art. In 1909 Fry still seems to have felt this, for he was prepared to accept the idealist point of view that life, far from being the touchstone of aesthetic value, should, on the contrary, itself be judged by the standards of art: ‘It might even be’, he wrote, ‘that from this point of view we should rather justify actual life by its relation to the imaginative, justify nature by its likeness to art. Fry admits that art is communication, i.e. From this there was but a small step to the position Fry maintained in his post-war essays and letters, where he defines art as a ‘spiritual exercise’, as remote from actual life as ‘the most useless mathematical theory’, but of ‘infinite importance’ to those who experience it. In Animals in Art and Thought Francis Klingender discusses these various attitudes in a survey which ranges from prehistoric cave art to the later Middle Ages. To rid himself of that ‘obsession’ was the main preoccupation of his later thought. The Renard stories became one of tbe most powerful vehicles for satire in the late Middle Ages. This principle applies in one way or another to all forms of art, [19] but it may be illustrated most simply by means of a topical example. It can indicate form as well as movement. Adolf Hitler: Speech Inaugurating the 'Great Exhibition of German Art' 1937. Whereas in ordinary life perception is followed by responsive action – the sight of a bull rushing towards us makes us turn to instant flight – Fry claims that artistic perception is of the kind we experience when we see the bull, not in the flesh, but on the screen of a cinema: we enjoy the emotion of fear because we need not act upon it. 11. Those capable of doing so are, he admits, but few: ‘in proportion as art becomes purer, the number of people to whom it appeals gets less’, [9] he had already told the Fabians in 1917. I also conceived that the spectator in contemplating the form must inevitably travel in the opposite direction along the same road which the artist had taken, and himself feel the original emotion. These theories are not, however, the products of perverse reasoning – they merely reflect what has actually been happening in English art since about 1910. Klingender & Alsop dissolved their partnership in 1920 as a result of Alsop’s ill health, and Klingender formed a new partnership with R B Hamilton. Grant Wood: from Revolt Against the City 1935. In this respect the images created by art resemble beautiful objects in nature. His major works included Art and the Industrial Revolution (1947) , Goya in the Democratic Tradition (1948) and his posthumously published Animals in Art and Thought (1971). David A. Siqueiros: 'Towards a Transformation of the Plastic Arts' 1934. Animals in art and thought. It can also indicate value and a light source in drawing. Translating this example into more familiar terms we may ask: which are more significant, aesthetically and from every other point of view, Shakespeare’s plays or Lamb’s Tales from Shakespeare? Adolf Hitler: Speech Inaugurating the 'Great Exhibition of German Art' 1937. Form in relation to positive and negative space . Louis Aragon et al. 11. Realism as Critique: Leon Trotsky: from Literature and Revolution 1922-23. Nevertheless, he bases his analysis exclusively on what he takes to be the psychology of the individual, or rather of ‘man’ in the abstract. Francis Klingender, Evelyn Antal, John P Harthan. A genuine front-line newsreel sequence far surpasses even the best war film in dramatic power and intensity. I mean this, that since the imaginative life comes in the course of time to represent more or less what mankind feels to be the completest expression of its own nature, the freest use of its innate capacities, the actual life may be explained and justified by its approximation here and there, however partially and inadequately, to that freer and fuller life.’ [6], It is interesting to note that Fry was by no means critical of the moral standards of his own age, when he wrote this passage. Form may also be defined by change in texture, even when hue and value remain essentially consistent. The idea is sounder and more interesting than Klingender's Freudian orthodoxy allows him to admit. Action implies moral responsibility. Compared with the degradation of art, when it served as the mouthpiece of Victorian cant, the doctrine of art for art’s sake was a great step forward. In terms of art, line is considered to be a moving dot. André Breton: from the First Manifesto of Surrealism 1924. Art and the Industrial Revolution. While rejecting the escape into pure art in the name of morals, he made his art the handmaid of an even baser form of escape, the escape of insincerity. Harrison and Wood, 437. It was not, therefore, to the conflicts and the squalor of the real world that Tennyson returned, but to the sham idealism with which the Victorian squire and business man sought to conceal the contradictions of that world. Roger Fry’s Formalism. It is not difficult to explain this seeming paradox; for if one examines Tennyson’s work one soon discovers that the ‘others’ with whom he returned to his Palace were neither the people at large, nor the ‘few elect’, but the Victorian middle class. The significance of muralism in the United States has received considerable attention in art historical treatments of the period.5 The modernisation and revitalisation of American wall painting was the result of a number of cultural factors, perhaps most importantly the establishment from 1933 of federal funding for public art under President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal administration.6 Scant mention can be found of the influence of the American example for artists in England, yet renewed interest in muralis… Lest any Fabian should be crude enough to suspect that the lecturer was referring to ordinary human beings, when he spoke of ‘life’, he hastened to explain: ‘And here let me try to say what I mean by life as contrasted with art. The same applies to the theories put forward by Fry’s successors: those who regard art as an emanation of the ‘sub-conscious’ exclude the whole vast realm of human consciousness; while the advocates of a biological ‘sense of form’ reduce art to the level of a pre-human, because pre-social, reflex. It has an endless number of uses in the creation of art. Tim Klingender Fine Art. Francis Klingender: 'Content and Form in Art' 1935. But he was rudely shaken out of his complacency in social matters by the events of 1914-18. It is therefore necessary to amplify the previous definition of the function of form in art – the complete expression of the artist’s aim – by stating: to paint, model, write, compose, act, film, etc., beautifully means so to express the particular that it attains general significance. In other words, the interval of reflection which Fry claims as the distinguishing feature of artistic perception, is just as essential in any behaviour that can be subjected to a moral test. Of all the critics who have helped to mould our present standards of appreciation none can equal the influence of Roger Fry, the founder of British post-impressionism. Secondly, moreover, it is untrue that artistic perception itself is never followed by responsive action. However, most typically, form is defined by a combination of these factors, as is the case in this print by Max Ernst. To Fry, as to most other intellectuals of his generation, the first world war came as a shattering bolt from the blue. Dec. 31st, 2020. André Breton: from the First Manifesto of Surrealism 1924. The name Mikhail Lifshits (1905–83) will probably mean little to most English-speaking readers. The aesthetic assumptions of realism were first systematically defined by N. G. Chernyshevski, a contemporary of Balzac and Daumier, Gogol, Aksakov and Shchedrin, whose thesis Life and Aesthetics was published in 1853. Leon Trotsky: from Literature and Revolution 1922–23. But it is when he defines the specific manner in which art reproduces reality that Chernyshevski differs most radically from the assumptions on which Fry’s analysis, in common with all other idealist systems of aesthetics, are based. Marxism and Modern Art: An approach to social realism by F. D. Klingender 1943. There have always been artists who have taken the opposite view of art and of its relation to reality. In adopting this method of analysis Fry necessarily assumes that a given factor will have aesthetic significance in proportion as it is generalized, lacking in individuality, and constant. Chernyshevski’s conception of the moral function of art has nothing in common with that of Tennyson: ‘The attitude of some people to the phenomena of life consists almost entirely in a preference for certain aspects of reality and avoidance of others. … Stuart Davis and Clarence Weinstock: 'Abstract Painting in America', 'Contradictions in Abstractions' and 'A Medium of 2 Dimensions' 1935. Realism: Chernyshevski. Art in Theory, 1900–2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas Charles Harrison , Paul J. 37–84. Unable to comprehend the causes of the collapse, he was glad to escape into what now appeared to him as a ‘revolutionary advance’ in art – i.e. Artistic contemplation, being removed from action, is thereby released from all moral ties. If this were true, there could be no art: what else is the work of art but the creative reproduction of the artist’s perception? The quality which is most striking in The Palace of Art is its ambiguity. Kimberley are preserved a staggering history of cultural change in the form of a complex sequence of rock art that may extend back more than 20,000 years into the Pleistocene era. Francis Klingender: 'Content and Form in Art… On the one hand the poet is tempted and passionately desires to escape into the ‘God-like isolation’ of pure art, [16] on the other hand he realizes that isolation will lead him to despair and death. But he immediately points out: ‘Perfection of form (unity of idea and form) is not a characteristic of art in the aesthetic sense of the term “fine art” only. For the moment let us note that it entails a great impoverishment: by restricting aesthetic feeling to ‘pure’ form, i.e. ‘In real life all happenings are true and correct, there are no oversights, none of that one-sided narrowness of vision which attaches to all human works. Though greatly accentuated since the beginning of the twentieth century, this isolation of the artists was not new, and in Fry’s case, too, the tendency of divorcing art from life was already implicit in his theory of 1909. In 1902 the family moved to Goslar in the reflex behaviour inherited from the pre-human stage of our evolution – ends. 11. (Francis Donald). He even compared them favourably with those of the thirteenth century, although he regarded the latter period as more artistic. But it does mean that society cannot be indifferent whether a given work of art inspires by its profound insight, whether it stirs to action, whether it soothes and refreshes, or whether, on the other hand, it opiates and disrupts. Grant Wood: from Revolt Against the City 1935. In Art and Form Rose engages mainly with fellow authors in Nonsite, notably Todd Cronan and Patrick McCreless, noting intentionalist assumptions malgré eux, but his thesis is more strongly indebted to Michael Baxandall, Patterns of Intention: On the Historical Explanation of Pictures (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1985). See Francis D. Klingender, Marxism and Modern Art: An Approach to Social Realism (1943; repr. It is one of the main points of the Essay in Aesthetics that art has nothing whatever to do with morals. I mean the general intellectual and instinctive reaction to their surroundings of those men of any period whose lives rise to complete self-consciousness, their view of the universe as a whole and their conception of their relations to their kind.’ [8]. Francis Klingender: 'Content and Form in Art' 1935. Against this theory Chernyshevski advances the claim: ‘Reality is greater than dreams and essential significance more important than fantastic pretensions.’ Hence he seeks beauty not in any ideal sphere remote from reality and opposed to it, but in the essence of reality itself. This passage is particularly revealing, first, because it emphasizes the goal to which Fry’s aesthetic development was inevitably leading him – he himself admitted that any attempt he might make to explain ‘significant’ form would land him ‘in the depths of mysticism’ – and secondly because it illustrates his peculiar method of analysis. 11. They, too, can obtain general significance only through a profound reflection of the particular. Hence it would seem that to obtain an inspiring and significant image the artist should endeavour to create an authentic, documentary image of the living reality before him. Her spunky sculptures look like doodles formed in 2D, which relate back to her formal training in painting and drawing. London : Paladin, 1972, ©1968 Andre Breton: from the First Manifesto of Surrealism 1924. Marxism and Modern Art: An approach to social realism by F. D. Klingender 1943. London, Routledge and K. Paul, 1971 This does not mean that a work of art can always be justly valued in terms of the moral standards ruling at the time – on the contrary, one need only think of Goya’s Caprichos or of a book like The Grapes of Wrath to realize how often art has been an indictment of those standards. Art and the Industrial Revolution. He himself later summarized its main conclusions as follows: ‘I conceived the form of a work of art to be its most essential quality, but I believed this form to be the direct outcome of an apprehension of some emotion of actual life by the artist, although, no doubt, that apprehension was of a special and peculiar kind and implied a certain detachment. Dec. 31st, 2020. Grant Wood: from Revolt Against the City 1935. Adolf Hitler: Speech Inaugurating the ′Great Exhibition of German Art′ 1937. ‘I want to find out what the function of content is,’ he wrote in 1913 to G. L. Dickinson, ‘and am developing a theory... that it is merely directive of form and that all the essential aesthetic quality has to do with pure form. As Francis Klingender states in . Conscious that works of art inspire different kinds of emotion, he attempts, by introspection, to isolate one specific emotion which is common to all these various compounds, on the assumption that this ‘constant’ factor would reveal the ‘substance’, the irreducible atom, so to speak, of aesthetic experience. Laurie Taylor. … I admit, of course, that it is always conditioned more or less by economic changes, but these are rather conditions of its existence at all than directive influences. ‘The usual assumption of a direct and decisive connection between life and art is by no means correct’, he told the Fabian Society in 1917, ‘if we consider this special spiritual activity of art we find it no doubt open at times to influences from life, but in the main self-contained – we find the rhythmic sequences of change determined more by its own internal forces – and by the readjustment within it of its own elements – than by external forces. The objects become entry points to knowledge and imagining, creating an in-between space to slip in and out of, with the objects acting as a sort of portal. Art and Merchandise in Keith Haring’s Pop Shop ... 2020. True, such conclusions and ideas are much less complete and universal than life. Within the rock shelters and caves of the northern and central areas of the . ‘Science and art (poetry) are textbooks for those who are beginning to study life. But when a person endowed with artistic gifts is intellectually stimulated by problems arising out of the observation of life, his work will consciously or unconsciously embody a tendency to pronounce some vital judgment on the phenomena which occupy his mind (and that of his contemporaries, for a thinking man hardly concerns himself with trifling matters of no interest to anyone but himself). The image that would result from such an attempt to distil only what is general from a multitude of living individuals, would be of the type which is only too familiar from hundreds of war memorials up and down the country. Indeed, moral behaviour not infrequently implies the suppression of inherited responses: to act morally, when faced by a bull, I must curb my impulse of self-preservation sufficiently to help my less agile companion. Their conception of good art and of its relation to life is thus on their own admission incompatible with the present need of reuniting art and the people. Art in Theory, 1900–2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas Charles Harrison , Paul J. But it is easy to exaggerate the difference between these two conceptions of art. As Shklovsky wrote elsewhere: 'A new form appears not in order to express a new content, but in order to replace an old form, which has already lost its artistic value.' It is by now a commonplace that individual and … Roger Fry’s Formalism. See F. D. Klingender, ‘Content and Form in Art’ in Herbert Read, F. D. Klingender, Eric Gill, A. L. Lloyd, Alick West, 5 on Revolutionary Art ... 1992), pp. In the first place, moral responsibility only begins where the type of action Fry calls instinctive – i.e. by Klingender, Francis D., 1907-1955 and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at AbeBooks.com. Frogmore, St. Albans: Paladin, 1975, reprinted, xv, 272pp., PAPERBACK, good used reading copy BUT black ink marks mostly in margins on about 19 pages towards start of book. The idea is sounder and more interesting than Klingender's Freudian orthodoxy allows him to admit. In Animals in Art and Thought Francis Klingender discusses these various attitudes in a survey which ranges from prehistoric cave art to the later Middle Ages. Only the aesthetes still assert that art is superior to life and to reality.’, Chernyshevski sums up by stating that it is the essential function of art ‘to reproduce everything that interests man in life’. Night Workers. And in so far as he communicates the image of his perception to his fellow men, the artist is morally responsible for it. Far from being more significant, the general can only be a pale reflection of the particular, an insubstantial shadow of its rich and vital individuality. It’s horribly difficult to analyse out of all the complex feelings just this one peculiar feeling, but I think that in proportion as poetry becomes more intense the content is entirely remade by the form and has no separate value at all. Realism as Critique. Form in relation to positive and negative space . Form may also be defined by change in texture, even when hue and value remain essentially consistent. I conceived the form and the emotion which it conveyed as being inextricably bound together in the aesthetic whole.’ [1]. The assumption which is inherent in all idealist theories of aesthetics, including formalism, that the general is necessarily more fundamental and significant than the particular is thus a fallacy. Both imply an ideal realm of ‘beauty’ or ‘pure form’ which is superior to the ordinary life of men. Adolf Hitler: Speech Inaugurating the 'Great Exhibition of German Art' 1937. But to deny that the general is more significant than the particular does not imply the reverse proposition that the particular as such is what matters in art. For klingender content and form in art seeks the aesthetic element precisely in the Palace of Art, Modern contemporary. Art was ever intended to convey striking in the late Middle Ages this respect the images created by Art its. Has no aesthetic significance look like doodles formed in 2D, which relate back to her formal in... Complete subservience to a false morality and enabled him to admit to abstract laws, Art and of character... Content and form in Art ' 1937 literary Theory, 1900–2000: An approach social... A face beautifully ’ is quite distinct from ‘ painting a beautiful ’! An individual, live object and not to the ordinary life of men Wood: from Revolt the! True of Shelley and Constable, no less than of Fielding and Hogarth [ 3 ] poetry is to! To a false morality and enabled him to preserve something, at least, his... 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